European Scientific Institute
Female Education And Contraceptives Use In Nigeria
Saheed O. Olayiwola, Bayo L.O. Kazeem And Fuein, Vera Kum
Contraceptive use is considered important for protecting women’s
health and rights, influencing fertility and population growth. This study
examined the impact of female education on the use of contraceptives and
fertility rate in Nigeria using 2013 and 2018 cohorts of Demography and
Health Survey Data. The survey covers women ages 15 to 49 years. The study
shows that women’s education, income level, and cultural value are important
in explaining women’s reproductive behaviour. The results reveal that female
education has a positive significant effect on contraceptives use and a
significant negative effect on fertility rate. The contraceptives use and fertility
models show that the effects become stronger with an increase in the level of
education. Notably, the study shows no significant difference in the
behavioural pattern of the factors that influenced contraceptive use and
fertility rate in the 2013 and 2018 cohorts of demography and health survey
data. The study concludes that female education is vital in encouraging the use
of contraceptives and controlling the fertility rate. Hence, the government
should invest more in women education to increase women's use of
contraceptives, control fertility, and population growth, protect women's
health and stimulate sustainable economic development.
Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Public Expenditure And Income Growth In Nigeria: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis
Saheed O. Olayiwola, Bayo L.O. Kazeem And Samuel O. Olusanya
This study examined the effects of public expenditure on income growth in Nigeria using
Vector Auto-regressive Analysis (VAR). The results show that real income responds
positively to public expenditures on administration, community services, defence and
economic services. The results also confirm the feed-back effects of income and
government expenditures on administration, community services, defence and economic
services. It was concluded that government should direct her expenditure policies to
favoured expenditures that positively impact the growth of real national income and per
capita income. Hence, government should increase and judiciously manage her
expenditure on administration, economic services, defence and community services.
Corrupt practices in government should also be drastically curbed for effective usage of
Federal University, Lafia
Health Financing And Economic Growth In Nigeria
Saheed O. Olayiwola,and Samuel O. Olusanya
This study examines the impact of the health financing on economic growth in Nigeria using Auto-regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) estimation technique with time series data from 1990 – 2020. The results show that the previous year productive activities have a growth effect on economic growth both in the short-run and the long-run. The current domestic government general health expenditure has a negative growth effect on economic growth while the previous year domestic general government expenditure on health improves economic growth. Also, current out-of-pocket health expenditure negatively affects economic growth while previous year out-of-pocket health expenditure improves economic growth. The domestic private health expenditure has a significant positive growth effect on the economic growth. The result also strengthens the importance of private health spending than government health expenditure in improving economic growth. Therefore, it was concluded that health financing is necessary for sustainable economic growth. Hence, government should enhance individual health spending ability, increase health sector budgetary allocation and ensure prudent and effective budgetary implementation for the heath sector.
Schooling And Economic Growth In Nigeria
Olayiwola, Saheed O., Francis O. Adeyemi And Emmanuel I. Ajudua
Low level of human capital development hinders individual’s productivity and results in socioeconomic problems like poverty and unemployment.This study examined the impact of primary
school enrolment and secondary school enrolment on the growth of output per worker and the
growth rate of gross domestic product in Nigeria. Augmented-Solow human capital model was used
with data from 1985 to 2018. The results show a positive and significant relationship between
primary school enrollment, secondary school enrollment and growth of output per worker and
growth rate of gross domestic product. This implies that increase in primary school enrollment and
secondary school enrollment will increase the growth of output per worker and growth of gross
domestic product, all things being equal.Also, both the short-run and the long-run relationship
existed between primary school enrollment, growth of output per worker and growth rate of gross
domestic product. It wasconcluded that government should ensure that more Nigerians have access
to primary and secondary education.Thus, both primary and secondary education should be made
more accessible to people and more budgetary allocation should be channelled to the education
sector and the development of human capital to ensure economic growth in Nigeria.
Arabian Journal Of Policy And Development Studies
Digital Banking, Managerial Opportunism And The Performance Of Microfinance Banks In Nigeria
Bayo L.O. Kazeem And S. O. Olayiwola
The performance of Microfinance Banks’ (MFBs’) in Nigeria is an important economic and political
issue that has been a subject of many studies. The relationship between the shareholders and the
managers of MFBs is expected to translate to profitability if all norms in the act of funding,
monitoring, management and work environment are fulfilled. However, quite a number of these
banks had been forcefully closed down. Hence, government’s efforts at using MFBs’ as a tool of
improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers, alleviate poverty and provide micro credits to
rural and urban dwellers did not yield desired results. The presence of opportunistic distortion of
financial information occasioned by manager’s desire to achieve the set earnings targets may
adversely affects the accounting choices and disclosures in financial reporting. As firm‘s underlying
economic performance is measured by using accounting metrics, the violation of the contracting and
controlling role of accounting metrics will impair the reliability and informational role of these
metrics. Therefore, the metrics must be done with high degree of confidence reposed in the agents in
order to play reliable, contracting and controlling roles expected by the principal. However, the
agents usually backslide on this role due to managerial opportunistic behaviour leading to inability of
the system to generate expected earnings with sincerity of the agent and the professionals. Digital
banking is the digitization of all the traditional banking activities and programs that were previously
only available to customers when physically inside of a bank branch. Since digitalization reduces
human error and builds customer loyalty, digital banking may mitigate the effect of managerial
opportunism on the performance of microfinance banks. This study examined within the context of
digital banking, the effect of managerial opportunism on the performance of microfinance banks’ in
Nigeria. The results of both fixed and random effects estimations revealed that none of the variables
included to explain the effects of managerial opportunism on microfinance banks performance in
Nigeria is significant with digital banking as one of the control variables. This implies that, with
digital banking, managerial opportunism does not have any significant effect on the performance of
microfinance banks in Nigeria
Journal Of Economics And Policy Analysis,
Government Health Expenditure And Health Outcomes In Nigeria
Olayiwola, S. O., A. S. Adedokun And S. O. Olusanya
The aim of every successive Government in Nigeria as far as public spending on
health is concerned is to achieve a desired health outcomes on infant mortality,
maternal health, increased life expectancy, curtain the spread of diseases and
reduction in the level of morbidity. It is difficult to conclude that there is a match
between what is being spent on health and the outcomes that are recorded in the
sector. Therefore, this study is set out to investigate the impact government health
expenditure on infant mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy in Nigeria;
using data from World Development Indicator, (2021) and World Health
Organization Global Health Estimates Data (2020), the study avails the
cointegration technique and the Error Correction Model (ECM) methods of
analysis. The study found that increase in government health expenditure increase
life expectancy while it reduced infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate.
Environmental pollution and macroeconomic instability were found to negatively
affect life expectancy; infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate.
Remarkably, the study found a long-run relationship between government health
expenditure, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy. The study
concludes that adequate and sustainable financing for the health sector can
improve health outcomes. Therefore, the study recommends that government
should ensure adequate budgetary allocation for the health sector and guarantee
judicious management of public health spending to improve health outcomes.
Environmental pollution should also be curtailed to ensure healthy population
and increase in life expectancy of the populace.
Mental Health Financing Challenges, Opportunities And Strategies In Low- And Middle-income Countries: Findings From The Emerald Project
Dan Chisholm, Sumaiyah Docrat, Jibril Abdulmalik, Atalay Alem, Oye Gureje, Dristy Gurung, Charlotte Hanlon, Mark J. D. Jordans, Sheila Kangere, Fred Kigozi, James Mugisha, Shital Muke, Saheed Olayiwola, Rahul Shidhaye, Graham Thornicroft And Crick Lund
Background Current coverage of mental healthcare in low- and middleincome countries is very limited, not only in terms of access to servicesbutalso in termsof financialprotectionof individualsin need of care and treatment.
Aims To identifythechallenges, opportunities and strategiesfor more equitable and sustainable mental health financing in six subSaharan African and South Asian countries, namely Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda.
Method In the context of a mental health systems research project (Emerald), a multi-methods approach was implemented consistingofthreesteps:aquantitativeandnarrativeassessmentof eachcountry’sdiseaseburdenprofile,healthsystemandmacrofiscal situation; in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders; and a policy analysis of sustainable financing options.
Results Keychallengesidentifiedforsustainablementalhealthfinancing include the low level of funding accorded to mental health services, widespread inequalities in access and poverty, although opportunities existin the form of new political interest in mental health and ongoing reforms to national insurance schemes. Inclusion of mental health within planned or nascent national health insurance schemes was identified as a key strategy for
moving towards more equitable and sustainable mental health financing in all six countries.
Conclusions Including mental health in ongoing national health insurance reforms represent the most important strategic opportunity in the six participating countries to secure enhanced service provision and financial protection for individuals and households affected by mental disorders and psychosocial disabilities.
Springer Nature Switzerland
The Impact Of Ebola Virus Disease On Government Expenditure In Sierra Leone
Fuein Vera Kum, Saheed Olayiwola, And Njong Mom Aloysius
Household Economic Costs Associated With Mental, Neurological And Substance Use Disorders: A Cross-sectional Survey In Six Low- And Middle-income Countries.
Crick Lund, Sumaiyah Docrat, Jibril Abdulmalik, Atalay Alem, Abebaw Fekadu, Oye Gureje, Dristy Gurung, Damen Hailemariam, Yohannes Hailemichael, Charlotte Hanlon, Mark J. D. Jordans, Dorothy Kizza, Sharmishtha Nanda, Saheed Olayiwola, Rahul Shidhaye, Nawaraj Upadhaya, Graham Thornicroft And Dan Chisholm
Little is known about the household economic costs associated
with mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders in
low- and middle-income countries.
To assess the association between MNS disorders and household education, consumption, production, assets and financial
coping strategies in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa
We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional household survey
in one district in each country, comparing the economic circumstances of households with an MNS disorder (alcohol-use
disorder, depression, epilepsy or psychosis) (n = 2339) and
control households (n = 1982).
Despite some heterogeneity between MNS disorder groups and
countries, households with a member with an MNS disorder had
generally lower levels of adult education; lower housing standards, total household income, effective income and non-health
consumption; less asset-based wealth; higher healthcare
expenditure; and greater use of deleterious financial coping
Households living with a member who has an MNS disorder
constitute an economically vulnerable group who are susceptible to chronic poverty and intergenerational poverty
Declaration of interest
D.C. is a staff member of the World Health Organization. The
authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this
publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions,
policy or views of the World Health Organization.
Department Of Economics, Nnamdi Azikwe University
Population Health And Foreign Direct Investment Inflows: The Case Of ECOWAS Countries. Journal Of Economic Studies.
Olayiwola, S. O., A. Adedokun And A. O. Oloruntuyi
Recent empirical evidences lend support to the assertion that human capital and population
health are the most important factors determining growth closely followed by legal, economic
and political stability. Given the dearth of empirical study on the effect of population health
on FDI inflows in ECOWAS countries, this study examined the effects of population health
on net inflows of FDI in ECOWAS countries. We conducted a panel data random effect
analysis of the 15 ECOWAS countries over 1980 – 2018. The results suggest that net inflows
of FDI are positive but not significantly influenced by population health. Education,
infrastructure and trade openness positively and significantly influenced net FDI inflows in
ECOWAS countries. The results also show that a year improvement in life expectancy is
associated with increase in net FDI inflows by 2%. The paltry proportionate increase may be
due to export-oriented FDI inflow in ECOWAS countries. The study concludes that
improving population health through investment in health and other infrastructure will
improve the net FDI inflows and raise the growth trajectory of ECOWAS countries.